TCS Daily


Jailed for a Blogpost

By Dalia Ziada & Jese Sage - December 11, 2006 12:00 AM

In a cramped jail cell in Alexandria, Egypt, sits a soft-spoken 22-year-old student. Kareem Amer was remanded to over a month in prison for allegedly "defaming the President of Egypt" and "highlighting inappropriate aspects that harm the reputation of Egypt." Where did Amer commit these supposed felonies? On his weblog.

If the Alexandria prosecutors' standards of censorship were applied in the US, thousands of Americans would be behind bars. The Egyptian authorities' decision to jail an obscure student for his blogposts reveals a larger struggle for free speech playing out between dissident bloggers and state prosecutors across the Middle East.

For decades, the region's dictators maintained a monopoly on public information. Newspapers, radio stations, and national television broadcasts were nearly all owned by the state. These regime-controlled media outlets toed the government line, maligned political opponents, and blocked critical voices. By inverting the watchdog role of the press - where journalists expose, investigate, and question - what should be a critical independent institution was instead transformed into a mouthpiece for government propaganda.

The advent of blogs in the past few years, however, has reshaped the playing field. While some regimes (like Algeria) may still own the main printing presses and control the national supply of ink, any citizen can access free blogging services. Now an individual's voice - even that of a random student at Al-Azhar University, like Kareem Amer - can reach audiences around the globe.

Regimes accustomed to control have struggled to respond. In Tunisia, web publisher Zouhair Yahyaoui was dragged from an Internet café by security forces and tortured into revealing his site's password after he posted a quiz mocking President Zinedine Ben Ali. In Bahrain, the Information Ministry blocked the blog of entrepreneur Mahmoud Al-Yousif for covering a political scandal. In Iran, authorities arrested student Mojtaba Saminejad after he condemned the arrest of several fellow bloggers and "insulted the Supreme Leader."

Protecting free speech in the Middle East hinges on the fate of young activists like Kareem Amer. Raised in a strict Islamic household, Amer was placed in Al-Azhar's religious school system at the age of six and watched as his sisters were forced to quit school and wear the niqab (the full-body black veil). After 18 years in the rigid world of the Al Azhar system, Amer evidently felt trapped. Rather than embrace the religious establishment, he became a critic of discrimination against women and non-Muslims.

Blogging became Amer's outlet - and his downfall. When Al-Azhar officials discovered a blogpost criticizing extremist professors, Amer was expelled and his case referred to the public prosecutor.

Although a human rights lawyer accompanied Amer to his interrogation, prosecutors made clear they were indicting Amer for his beliefs. "Do you fast on Ramadan?" they demanded. "Do you pray?" They even insisted he reveal his opinions on the Darfur crisis. Amer would not retract his blogposts, so prosecutors threw him in jail - and laughed at the human rights attorney present, openly mocking the concept of standing up for individual rights.

Only a few years ago, the arrest of a student at Al-Azhar would have been met with silence and indifference from the outside world. But today, hundreds of fellow bloggers and readers from around the world have raised the alarm. Over 1,500 have sent letters to the Egyptian government and the State Department demanding Amer's release. The technology that has empowered unknown students in closed societies to speak to the world also gives readers everywhere the ability to rally together to protect free expression.

It also enabled Amer to smuggle blogposts out from his Alexandria cell. "A person using his brain and expressing his ideas freely," he observed, "is more dangerous in our country than someone who destroys others' property or deals drugs."

Amer's arrest - for writing on a website few people have ever read - comes as the future of the Middle East hangs in the balance. While recent years have witnessed a surge in young voices challenging the status quo, powerful forces are trying to close down that window of greater liberty. In the campaign to hold Egyptian authorities accountable for criminalizing free speech, much more than the fate of one young blogger is at stake.

Dalia Ziada is a staffer at the Cairo-based Arabic Network for Human Rights Information. Jesse Sage directs the HAMSA project of the American Islamic Congress.



36 Comments

No Subject
I don't want to sound un-american by having an opinion restricting free speech, but universitys are looked upon as fertile virgin land by subversive groups.
Egyptians have a different culture than the United States. It is a very old established culture. Egypt has it's own set of social problems, and one month isn't a very long jail sentence.
Our president has declared a Global War On Terror. This war extends into the way of life in other countries. It is not a war restricted to battlefields by well-organized armys. It is a fight against subversive elements. These terrorists groups are present in Egypt and other countries in the Middle East.
I think the severe human rights violations in Middle Eastern countries are very wrong- the law in Afghanistan that carrys the death penalty for anyone professing Christianity, for example.

"fertile virgin land"
Fortunatly, in the USA, students are beginning to have the right to challenge their subversive professors.

"HR64 is one of the most powerful university statements on academic freedom. It states:

"The faculty member is entitled to freedom in the classroom in discussing his/her subject. The faculty member is, however, responsible for the maintenance of appropriate standards of scholarship and teaching ability. It is not the function of a faculty member in a democracy to indoctrinate his/her students with ready-made conclusions on controversial subjects.

"The faculty member is expected to train students to think for themselves, and to provide them access to those materials which they need if they are to think intelligently. Hence, in giving instruction upon controversial matters, the faculty member is expected to be of a fair and judicial mind, and to set forth justly... the divergent opinions of other investigators."

This would be powerful enough, but the Penn State policy adds:

"No faculty member may claim as a right the privilege of discussing in the classroom controversial topics outside his/her own field of study. The faculty member is normally bound not to take advantage of his/her position by introducing into the classroom provocative discussions of irrelevant subjects not within the field of his/her study.""

http://www.philly.com/mld/inquirer/news/editorial/16190303.htm

The Liberation of Islam
“…the law in Afghanistan that carrys the death penalty for anyone professing Christianity…”

There are passages in the Koran that strongly support the execution of intransient Muslims or non-Muslims (infidels). There is also numerous text that supports the dignity of human beings and the forgiving and compassionate nature of God. Many Islamic religious and political organizations (especially in predominantly Muslim countries) are statist in nature and skillfully utilize selected portions of the Koran to hold and maintain control. Those who strive to reform this “system” are fighting the confluence of religious doctrine and political expediency.

Any religion or philosophy can be used to support the goals of self-appointed experts and tyrants. Historically, the elimination of tyranny has always been difficult and costly. I salute and support the efforts of those who are trying.

No Subject
It would be v. interesting to know whether Al Jazeera or any other similar Arab media outlet has reported this imprisonment.

Does that TV station cover the fights for freedom that you report?

Interesting
and about time!! Freedom of Speech should not extend, in any institution public or private, to professors proclaiming their personal beliefs to a captive and reliant group (students). It should also nto extend to students who commit acts of violence, vandalism and intollerance.

Selective Christian passages
I don't think I have ever heard a minister preach about what God told Samuel about kings.

"1 Samuel 8:11

1 Samuel 8:11 And he said, This will be the manner of the king that shall reign over you: He will take your sons, and appoint them for himself, for his chariots, and to be his horsemen; and some shall run before his chariots. "

And there is more about what a government will do.

Three points missed
The article only discusses indirectly or misses three important issues.

(1) How important the guaranteed right of freedom of speech and freedom of the press is to a free democracy.

(2) How today in Western democracies the political correct language police are as much a risk to free speech and can cause as great a harm as spending one month in jail. Spending a month in jail may not mean you lose your job or can no longer practice your profession. A professor or student using the wrong word in public discourse can end their career.

(3) We forget that in representative democracies that powerful groups can gain control using the exact freedoms guaranteed by their constitutions or common law. They first gain power using liberty and freedom and then eliminate those same freedoms that help them rise to power.

***** rose to power in 1930s. Germany was democracy at the time. The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt wants to gain greater power through the democratic process to ultimately install a government based on Sharia Law. Hugo Chavez, first elected in a democracy, is slowly consolidating dictatorial powers to ultimately become the next Fidel Castro and eliminate democracy altogether. Each of these countries either had controlled press and strict laws regulating public and political speech or the media was controlled by a very few people.

Human Rights
I believe their cause should be studied and perhaps taken up by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, and sections of those groups should operate in Egypt, and persecution of Christians should stop immediately. Egypt gets billions of dollars from The United States taxpayers,though les than Israel, and peacemaker Anwar Sadat was gunned down by extremists for his efforts with the Israelis and former President Carter.Hopefully the bloggers will succeed in helping moderate factions of Islam and the governments that are held hostage to it, so America won't go broke or get killed trying to secure freedoms for foreign nationals that are held sacrosanct by Americans that are often denied by Americans in office or in the media.I would also like to see posts by people with real names instead of hiding behind phony nicknames-where is your courage?

Must've changed since I was there...
Or perhaps there's novel ways determining what constitutes "provocative discussions of irrelevant subjects not within the field of his/her study."

My favorite was a 1980's Business Law class where the attorney professor surely stayed within the bounds of his field by discussing the demerits of the medievel vice charge of "alienation of affection", where a married man could bring such a charge against another man seeking the "affections" of the firt mans wife.

His conclusions: Rampant Sexism! Women are little more than chattel!

(of course this would have nothing to do with protecting the inheritance of children, whose share in the ol' man's estate would be diluted and diverted if mom had "commerce" with other than dad and gave birth)

Hmmm... maybe thats why I had to relearn the electments of a contract and the provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code when I took the CPA exam years later, because my professor indulged his whim, rather than the syllabus.

I suspect that this restriction does little to stop indoctrination - so many fields are so indefinite in scope as to be without boundary.






Obviously
I never mastered typing either

We would do well to remember Ms. Kirkpatrick's idea
3) We forget that in representative democracies that powerful groups can gain control using the exact freedoms guaranteed by their constitutions or common law. They first gain power using liberty and freedom and then eliminate those same freedoms that help them rise to power.


The late Ms. K formulated that it was improper and invalid for one generation to bind future ones to tyranny.

are you honestly declaring that jail is the proper response to people who oppose govt?
...

I'm surprised
that roy hasn't piped in to defend the jailing of this young rabble rouser.

Intimidating free speech
Jow Stalin provides an even better example of this process than David Horowitz. In the old Soviet Union it wasn't only students who were encouraged to turn in their professors, it was children who were encouraged to report to the state whenever their parents made utterances that might be considered to go against Soviet thought.

I believe when you were a member of the Komsomol you even got some sort of merit badge for your heroic contribution to the glorious revolution. But as I recall, the parents in question had to be indicted, tried, sentenced and imprisoned before the badge was issued.

Free speech not dead yet in Egypt
Well, here's the way the story was reported in the Daily Star, a popular Egyptian paper:

***

More than 14 human rights organizations have condemned the decision of the Public Prosecutor’s Office in Alexandria to extend the detention of student blogger Kareem Amer for an additional 15 days pending further investigation into his online writings in which he reportedly criticizes Islam.

In a press release issued on Nov. 11, the organizations called upon the Egyptian government to immediately release Amer and guarantee his right to freedom of expression.

"The arbitrary accusations against Kareem Amer indicate the authorities' inclination to detain Kareem simply for expressing views contradictory to theirs. The public prosecutor told Kareem that if he did not abandon his views, even though personal, he may be imprisoned,” representatives from the organizations argue.

According to Dalia Ziada from the Arabic Network for Human Rights Information, the investigator told Amer that “he should reconsider his secular opinions and change his mind in order to be able to get out of jail. When Kareem insisted on his right to freedom of expression, the investigator ordered his re-detainment for another 15 days with the hope that the stay in prison might push Kareem to change his mind.”

Furthermore, Amer is currently sharing a cell with “serious criminals which could potentially threaten his life,” his lawyer Rawda Amer stresses.

A former student at Al-Azhar University, Amer was arrested on Nov. 7.

Amer was expelled from the university in March this year following intense interrogations by his teachers on his secular thoughts and religious critiques.

Amer is currently accused of: "Spreading data and malicious rumors that disrupt public security"; "defaming the president of Egypt"; "incitement to overthrow the regime upon hatred and contempt"; and "incitement to hate 'Islam' and breach of the public peace standards."

The Daily Star Egypt contacted the Ministry of the Interior for further information on why Amer was arrested and whether blogs were being monitored. A spokesman asked that questions be faxed to the Ministry.

At press time, the Ministry had not commented or responded to further queries from The Daily Star Egypt.

***

http://www.dailystaregypt.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=3901

They also have an interesting article linking the lack of democracy in Egypt with human rights abuses:

http://www.dailystaregypt.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=4390

Here's a good snapshot of the Egyptian blogosphere:

http://arabist.net/arabawy/author/hossam/

No Subject
I don't want to nit pick. But don't you think we have greater free speech priorities on earth than making a federal case out of a thirty day sentence?

Take our ally Colombia, for instance. They lead the world, as I recall, in the annual number of extrajudicial executions of reporters and of trade union organizers. Wouldn't that perhaps be a greater priority, human rights wise?

BTW I like your phony nickname-- how do you like mine?

I spoke to soon
Wouldn't you know that roy would be quick to find some way to defend his arab buddies.

How about receiving a grade for your politics?
Universities require certain liberal arts courses to graduate. If the only class left is a women's study class taught by feminist who hates men, and you are a man, are you going to say what you think and fail or play the wimp and pass? (This happened to a friend of mine.)

Human rights abuses
Then you would be in agreement with the opinion that our ally Egypt, in sentencing a blogger to 30 days in prison, is a worse human rights abuser than our ally Colombia, who leads the world in assassinations of journalists and trade union organizers?

I think that's what you are saying.

Your anecdote
You're telling us your friend had to take a course from a list in order to pass-- and the list was so short the only course on it was something taught by a feminist.

This doesn't sound right. Please ask your friend the name of the university (and, hopefully, the name of the course) and let us know. I'll get back to you once I've looked into it.

What I'm saying is that you are famous for doing or saying anything to protect muslims.
In this case, trying to change the subject.
As to Columbia, it's far from certain that the govt is the largest killer of those who disagree.
Your friends up in the hills have quite a history of killing people who oppose them as well.

Why don't you for once, tell the whole story?

Quick facts on Colombia (with an "o")
I don't think I was changing the subject. The subject was egregious human rights abuses. And my comment was that I thought Egypt's giving a thirty day sentence to a blogger for defaming the government was just about the worst thing I have ever read about.

Right wing paramilitaries in Colombia certainly don't have an exclusive lock on violence. But they are certainly responsible for a majority of reporters being killed, and probably exclusively behind the many killings of labor organizers. One has to address the issue of whose interest lay behind the crimes.

But there are also drug gangs, private groups for hire and, of course, the FARC. The latter have been responsible for numerous killings and kidnappings over the years. It is estimated that 70% of the violence in Colombia comes from paramilitary operations. That leaves 30% committed by other parties.

FARC, of course, does not operate entirely "up in the hills". They control and administer about 40% of the land surface of the country, leaving the remainder to forces under the Uribe government.

If I've missed any part of the whole story, let me know.

Didn't the trolls want to restrict free speech last week.
"Disrupting the use of free speech is also reactive and defensive in nature, however it is performed. Governments and free speech advocates traditionally perceive such questions as having an either-or polarity: either the government allows all speech, or it does not"


I love the way roy "assumes" that all of the bad things are being done by the people he doesn't like
typical.

My anecdote...
I took a Women's Studies class in college and got an "A" while all the time speaking my mind. Just because you believe in the rights of women doesn't mean you have to spout the full feminist party line. While I have met my far share of liberal fascists, I have also met a good many open-minded libertarians.

In fact, I only had two allies in that class: the professor and a woman working her way through college as a stripper. The "ladies" hated her even more than they did me when they found out her occupation.

The professor liked the fact that there were opposing opinions in the room. She said it made it a learning experience rather than an echo-chamber.

The funniest thing that happened in the class was when one of the students, kind of a female version of Roy, asked me why I took the course in the first place. My answer? "To meet chicks!" The memory of the hate in her eyes still warms me up inside.

pick this
This is not a phony nickname-I am A Sir in The Holy Catholic Church, and have been since the early 1990's. I earned it many years ago with much diligence and spiritual discernment, international travel and years of prayer, blood donations, work for the poor, handicapped, blind, orphans and public marches celebrating and defending and promoting the cultures of life and holiness over the snares of the devil, secular media, pornography,unjust war, violence in the home, etc. Trade "ally"Mexico just captured an American journalist named Will and I believe killed him according to yesterday's NewYork Times, and I can't keep track of how many horrible abuses took place in Chile, whose dictator Pinochet died recently also.Human Rights abuses in Venezuela should be watched closely as well because of all the dangerous deeds and popularity with the poor and vulnerable Hugo Chavez seemingly has, and support he gets from Iran.Libya's Gaddaffi has also framed 5 Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian Doctor for infecting children with aids and they face death by firing squad, which would put Gaddaffi in the disgusting "lead"for this "extra judicial killings" contest these criminals seem to be competing for.

Honorifics
A thousand pardons, Most Holy Sir. How must one address thee? Exalted One? Or perhaps Perfect Master?

Sorry-- pompous titles bring out the Regulator in me. We did away with such things when we had our revolution. I know your title means much to you, and my immoderate sarcasm ill befits a gentleman.

Please document those "human rights abuses" you assume are happening in Venezuela. I'd like some documentation, so I can concur in hating that odious regime. :)

I agree with you that the experiment should be watched closely there-- because they are now achieving the seemingly impossible. They are making both rich and poor richer. We should take notes, and see how this is done.

Finally, I don't think it was "Mexico" who killed that reporter. It was a mob, in the midst of a rito.

Cheers, good Sir

A very mixed message
So then, your actual experience would seem to undercut the thrust of the anecdote. You meant to imply in your first post that the instructor was biased against you-- when in fact she was your ally.

And the fellow student who only went to the class "to meet chicks" reminds you of me. How, exactly? Are you saying I'm just in here to meet guys?

I'll bet you're awfully attractive, big boy.

Special definitions of "speech"
Those of whom you speak define free speech selectively. If it's an opinion spoken in a classroom setting, obviously it is to be stamped out and the speaker driven from the forum.

But they also equate money with speech. So the natural corollary is that the more money one has, the more free speech he enjoys.

"Most Holy" and "Pompous"
It is not inherited, and I am not a perfect Master, though I earned my M.A. in 1994 from Adelphi University, and as all who are called "holy" die as all mortals do, the exalted title is an honorific earned that will not be taken away without "due process of law" that all Native born Americans have a right to, and new arrivals do get, I am not an expert in Immigration Law though.Hating a dictatorship is not enough-you should check with my old colleagues in Amnesty International and Human Rights watch for alleged abuses that are any different from previous regimes in Venezuela, as I haven't been there or received communiques from them or The US Dept. of State concerning my letter writing on behalf of alleged victims there recently. The human rights abuses come in the form of holding out false hopes of humanitarian aid and cheap oil for victims of Katrina during an oil-rich reign of another Bush regime, and the stockpiling of WMD from Iran and perhaps creating another terrorist base in a country not known for a large Moslem population, but a well known member of OPEC, which many forget is distinct from The Arab League.Have you been there or do you have plans to go? My work on The Board of Directors for a Corporation and past meetings with Sec.State Albright,Nat.Sec.Adviser Sandy Berger and US Ambassador to The United Nations Bill Richardson and dozens of other high level officials of The United States Federal Gov. and subsequent trial, appeal and conviction of a terrorist agent render me highly electable in 2008 and succeeding years on available party lines, but I should have won in 1998 The 4th Federal district NY State US Congress election but because of Mondello Sr.'s ill-advised decision in making me a "Party Builder for The Nassau County GOP Committee" a non-paying "position" for my Right To Life stance, youthful and aggressive spirituality and brutal honesty about the opponent/incumbent, I was insulted, threatened, had my good name dragged through the mud, and accused of opportunism, hucksterism, et alia, and could have helped stop 9-11-01, but will never know for sure if I were sworn in 1999 and served on the House International Affairs Committee. On The Ways and Means Committee I would have undoubtedly saved the middle class tax payers billions by now, but I am still available for obstructing waste, fraud and abuse.

Roy: Graduate of LeMule's Reading Comprehension Class
Let us start with your first mistake.

>"So then, your actual experience would seem to undercut the thrust of the anecdote. You meant to imply in your first post that the instructor was biased against you-- when in fact she was your ally."

Actually, I in no way attached my anecdote with marjon's. I was merely spouting off my own experience with a class that most would assume to be just more liberal indoctrination. Turned out it wasn't.

And she wasn't my ally. In fact she disagreed with most of my politics and much of my philosophy regarding men/women relations but she found my research and papers to be innovative, extremely well researched, and, most importantly, brutally honest.

So that is your first mis-reading of my post. Let us move on to your second one.

Here is what I wrote:

"The funniest thing that happened in the class was when one of the students, kind of a female version of Roy, asked me why I took the course in the first place. My answer? "To meet chicks!" The memory of the hate in her eyes still warms me up inside."

Okay, the female version of you is the one ASKING the question of ME. The response is MINE. Understand now?

The reason I called her a female version of you is that she would have preferred an environment that would confirm her feelings that America, capitalism, and white men in general are to blame for all the evils of the world.

>"I'll bet you're awfully attractive, big boy."

At least you got that part right.

Bringing a terrorist to justice
I was just pulling your leg-- thanks for not being offended.

The HRW docket on Venezuela doesn't seem to be too full of egregious violations. In fact since Chavez took office in 1999 it seems sort of innocuous. But maybe that's just me.

http://hrw.org/doc/?t=americas_pub&c=venezu

Nor is the OAU report on human rights, which goes into exhaustive detail, very illuminating about the sins of Chavez. I note in passing though that it has this to say about his predecessors-- all good friends of the United States:

"The Commission also learned that a Special Commission was recently created to investigate the deaths, torture, and disappearances of the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, and that one of the initial procedures of that Commission was to demand the declassification of the records and files of the police corps, so that they can be evaluated by a team specialized in criminology and criminal law, in order to determine responsibilities in the death and disappearance of more than 1,000 persons for political reasons during those decades (National Assembly, August 9, 2005)."

http://www.cidh.oas.org/annualrep/2005eng/chap.4d.htm

You don't mean to say Mr Chavez promised cheap oil to the victims of Katrina, do you? What would they use the oil for-- pomade? I believe the cheap oil promised to New England has been delivered and sold. Correct me if I'm wrong.

I did run down the allegations of importing WMDs. But it appears these items were procured from Spain, not Iran. Oh well, Spain, Iran... It's an interesting charge. No list of materials has been provided. Only that they are described as being "chemical warfare agents" and "radioactive materials". I'd be interested in seeing the actual inventory.

If you are interested in Venezuelan issues and are considering a run for high office, I have the perfect issue for you. There is a certain nation, known to be harboring a fugitive from justice-- Luis Posada Carriles, instrumental in the terror bombing of a domestic airliner and causing 78 deaths. That nation is the United States.

The US should expedite his extradition to Venezuela (or at least to some nation willing to bring an indictment against him), and do its part in bringing this man to justice. Considering our vociferous stand on the War on Terror it's the least we might do toward the prosecution of that war.

Feminist issues; the liberal arts ideal
Well goodness dearie me-- I seem to have confused you with Tlaloc, or marjon. I can't imagine how I could have done that. It seemed like the same anecdote.

"And she wasn't my ally. In fact she disagreed with most of my politics and much of my philosophy regarding men/women relations but she found my research and papers to be innovative, extremely well researched, and, most importantly, brutally honest."

That's what a liberal arts prof is supposed to do. The good ones will all tell you you're free to hold any opinion you wish, but you have to defend it adroitly and to articulate your reasons for holding it. As we know, not all do this... but the good ones do.

"The reason I called her a female version of you is that she would have preferred an environment that would confirm her feelings that America, capitalism, and white men in general are to blame for all the evils of the world."

I've known a lot of women in this world-- professionally and personally, not nevessarily biblically-- and I'll have to offer that a fairly large number of them have sufered at the hands of a certain kind of man. They've known date rapes, abusive relationships and just ordinary sexist putdowns for most of the time they've been on earth.

It may not produce a personality you might find very attractive in a woman. But it is predictable, considering the way many men are. Too bad you had to suffer the existence of such a woman. Many have just had terrible life experiences, and not had the pleasure of meeting a man worth knowing yet.

I just knew you'd be a handsome lad. Could you send us some pictures?

Another view...
>"I've known a lot of women in this world-- professionally and personally, not nevessarily biblically-- and I'll have to offer that a fairly large number of them have sufered at the hands of a certain kind of man. They've known date rapes, abusive relationships and just ordinary sexist putdowns for most of the time they've been on earth."

There pain and suffering is not license to hate me just as my pain and suffering is not license to hate those who happen to belong to the same demographic group that inflicted that pain on me.

I don't do it and demand that others don't do it to me.

>"It may not produce a personality you might find very attractive in a woman. But it is predictable, considering the way many men are. Too bad you had to suffer the existence of such a woman. Many have just had terrible life experiences, and not had the pleasure of meeting a man worth knowing yet."

It is this sort of victimization mentality that allows people to hate and believe they are justified in that hate. You and I both speak out against hating all Muslims yet your points above would justify that hate. Similar views of hatred can be applied to other groups as well.

How do you determine which hatred is low-brow and which is acceptable? I got my ass-kicked by five Potawatomees in high school. Am I justified to feel hatred for all Indians? Shouldn't they understand my hatred and accept it? Perhaps a good place to start would be for every Indian I meet to apologize for the actions made by people they don't even know.

Funny that your arguments are similar to the ones I heard in that class.

>"I just knew you'd be a handsome lad. Could you send us some pictures?"

What do you like? Submissive cowboy? Lonely goat-herder? Leather-clad biker? I got a whole portfolio done for just such a request.

A guilt free existence
"There pain and suffering is not license to hate me just as my pain and suffering is not license to hate those who happen to belong to the same demographic group that inflicted that pain on me."

I quite understand. When I find such a woman being unduly harsh on me I can assume that she has met more than a few bad men in her life. It's easy then to either set her straight gently, or to bid her a good day and walk away.

You never need apologize for anything you haven't done yourself. Be advised that when in the company of minorities you may get the cold shoulder. It's then up to you to break the ice.

If you're surrounded by hostile Apaches, for instance, you can always break the ice by telling them your great grandmother was scalped by their tribe. It's a good conversational opener.

Many black folks have raised the sport of guilt tripping the white man to a high art form. If you ever find yourself in such company, don't take it personally. If they're basically OK people it's not too hard to get them laughing. And if you can't get them to laugh, they're not worth knowing anyway.

The way I've come to understand people, actual hatred is a difficult barrier to hurdle. I wouldn't waste my time. But if someone is just prepared to dislike me, I can usually find some common ground and establish a working relationship. I was a manager by profession once upon a time. So I tend to look at everyone as being raw material with certain individual strengths and limitations. I never take them personally unless they offer a cordial opening to do so. It makes doing business easier.

But I am definitely interested in your portfolio. Do you have anything in there like an over-wrought hair stylist? I just love that look.

disadvantage of superheater
hi.I want to knw the disadvantage of superheater and evaporator.if anybody knw abt this then plz help me.

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